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攝影器材基礎知識--鏡頭

鏡頭:通過透鏡給底片一個清晰的影像。

1.作用:

使光線彙聚在底片上,結像清晰。能納入大量光線,使在1/1000秒內的曝光充分,極大程度消除像差。

2.品質要求:

有彙聚光線的能力,把來自物放的光線聚集成像。 沒有畸變,使一個平面的物體所結的影像有是一個平面。 影像的外貌形態與景物的外貌形態必須相象。

3.鏡頭的納光本領:

在限定時間內納入光量的多少(快-慢) 口徑:有效口徑,相對口徑,可變 f/8, 通光直徑是鏡頭焦距的1/8。

4.光圈:

調節鏡頭納光量的大小,光孔大小用f/表示。 你知道嗎,f/1.4最大還是f/64最大?呵呵,錯了吧,f/1.4最大。 f/1.4的鏡頭指的是最大光孔為2.8的鏡頭。

5.焦點距離:

基本上是從鏡頭中心到膠片上所形成的清晰影像上的距離。 積聚越大,形成的影像越大。

6.鏡頭的鍍膜:

因反射失掉光線,鏡頭反光損失光量,降低反差,清晰度,損失色彩,質感,層次和色彩飽和度。 在透鏡片與空氣接觸的表面加增透膜,為紫色、橙色、藍色。

7.鏡頭按焦距分類:

標準鏡頭--特徵:視角50度,接近人眼,保持物質逼真,有效口徑最大。

廣角鏡頭--特徵:焦距比所攝底片對角線小,視角大,60-90度,90度以上為超廣角。f:17mm-20mm超廣角。

魚眼--特徵:最先為科研設計,視域廣闊,能達到甚至超過180度,兩種,一種畫面呈圓形,一種呈矩形,視角150以上。

長焦--特徵:焦距大於底片對角線長度,視角小,空間深度感弱,有效口徑小。

變焦--特徵:轉環變焦,推拉變焦,同一鏡頭不同焦距,通過變焦環是鏡片組先後移動。

近攝鏡微距鏡頭--特徵:可變透視鏡,增(減)距鏡

肖像鏡頭--特徵:85mm-135mm

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